Object #1010779 from fMS-140

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From: Extracts from a journal kept during a visit to the tribes of the interior of the northern island of New Zealand, Reference Number fMS-140 (2 digitised items). A contemporary copy of a portion of Donald McLean's diary describing his journey from New Plymouth to Wanganui, Taupo, Rotorua, Waikato, with the Rev Richard Taylor. His original account is in MS-1196. The copy is accompanied by a letter from McLean to his aunt, dated 1 September 1846, saying that he has had the copy done for her, but that if he had done it himself he would have included some things missed out.

A transcription/translation of this document (by ATL) appears below.

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EXTRACTS from a JOURNAL kept during a visit to the TRIBES in the interior of the NORTHERN ISLAND of NEW ZEALAND.

Monday 20th October 1845. Started from New Plymouth about 1/2 past 12 for Wanganui and Taupo slept the first night at Hauranga.

Tuesday 21st. Continued my journey in wet heavy weather from Hauranga; meeting with the several natives as I passed their places who made enquiries as to a New Doctrine that had just sprung up amongst them some pretending they had seen the Almighty and his Angels and that they were the true Bishops and disciples of Christ and one even calling himself God (or Jesus Christ). I referred them to their Missionaries not wishing to enter into any religious dispute with them - Slept at Wairua which I think is the sweetest spot in the road to Wanganui - several portions of land here are now occupied by natives that have been laying waste for years, but I regret to find that they are all under fears of the Taupo tribes, and are fortifying their Pahs when they ought to be employed in planting and sowing.

Wednesday 22nd. Find the natives I met with doctrine this day greatly taken up with the new "tikanga" several of them asserting that they had seen the Almighty as on the previous day, whilst others who disbelieved this folly wished to see Messrs Taylor and Bolland on the subject - wrote from Otumatua to the latter gentleman.

Thursday 23rd. Left Otumatua when having sent my native attendants on before I missed the path and was lost in the bush for two hours where I had to climb and scramble about before I could recover the road - got to Kaupukunui about midday where I had food cooked for the natives (attend). Met a European here who is married to a native woman and has had several children by her. He lives about 2 miles inland cultivates about 6 acres of land rears pigs and is likely to live comfortably. Arrived in the evening at Waimate the station of the deceased Mr Skevington (a Wesleyan Missionary who died suddenly at Auckland whilst attending divine service) found his afflicted Widow in a better state of health and spirits than I anticipated - her child is a fine healthy girl about 1 1/2 years old. Being the first acquaintance that had visited the station since the above event, I felt called on to offer a few words of consolation on her heavy loss.

Monday 27. Rain in the morning. Left Patea at 10 o'clock and got to Ihupuku about 1/2 past 2, got some roasted potatoes for my natives and proceeded on my journey to Wanganui in passing along the beach the sea was furiously dashing against the rocks and nearly high water my servant William (a man of color) who happened to be behind, was nearly carried off by a wave and was lost the whole of that day, causing me very great anxiety, I got with my natives on a small hillock which sheltered us from the roughness of the sea and waited for him to come, up, also despatching one to meet him. I then went myself but could see nothing of him - about 12 o'clock at night we made another search with lighted fire sticks, but no signs of William. I was pleased to see the natives so active in the search (although we had walked 30 miles that day) and so much concerned, that they would not touch any food until he was heard of. About break of day another search was to have been made, we had then got to Kai Iwi and pitched our tent, when about 6 in the morning William made his appearance having been obliged to climb up a rocky and precipitous Cliff to escape the fury of the waves, where he was detained by the tide all night.

Tuesday 28th. Got to Dr Wilsons, Wanganui, about 12 o'clock after a good blinding on the road from the sand blowing in our faces, received a kind and welcome reception dined there and after dinner viewed his garden and farming operations was highly delighted with his experience and the useful knowledge he displayed on the treatment of Trees, plants, and vegetables and the soil. This gentleman is a highly qualified member of his profession, and an acquisition to any place wherein he locates himself. Called on some other friends and afterwards arrived at the Revd. R. Taylor's at the Mission station, who intended accompanying me to Taupo in the interior, found him just returned from administering the sacrament to the natives at Waikanae and others along the coast, he had travelled with his son Basil, a distance of 40 Miles that day. From his delightful and truly interesting family such as is rarely or scarcely ever to be met with in the colonies I received the most kind and hearty welcome.

Monday 3rd November. Made every preparation for our journey. I afterwards went with Captn Campbell to Camerons section which has a very unfertile and hilly appearance - was entertained by that gentleman with the usual

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hospitable manner which the Highlanders are so distinguished for.

Tuesday Novr 4th, 1845. All ready for a start at 10 A. M. for Taupo but there being a difficulty in getting the natives to leave their Kumara plantations were detained till the following day - In the course of the day I had an opportunity of seeing a very beautiful manufacture from the native flax and colored after the native manner with N. Z. bark, it consisted of Ladies Work bags and other articles and exceeded for neatness and delicacy anything I had seen made of the finest silk. It is very probable that this will become in time an article of export.

Wednesday Novr. 5th. Started from the Mission station at 1/2 past nine in the morning accompanied by the Revd. R. Taylor and proceeded up the Wanganui River in a canoe slept at Parikino, Noati's kainga after a pleasant row.

Thursday 6th. Continued our journey and called at two Pahs Operiki where a European is stationed and where there is a beautiful waterfall (a sketch of which is made at the end of this Journal) and Hikurangi where we slept.

Friday 7th. Travelled over a rough bushy road from Ikurangi to Mangawero River where we had a very dangerous descent down a steep Precipice of from 2 to 300 feet. The general appearance of the country is wild rugged and uninhabited. The Trees produce very beautiful wood amongst them are the Beach or Tawai, Rimu, Rewarewa, Wairangi, and several smaller kinds of timber.

Saturday Novr. 8th. From Mangowera to Ararawa river where we spent the Sunday, it was late in the evening when we got here and my natives complained of fatigue. The country we had passed through was wooded and level and some very rich soil, intersected with Rivers a few small plains of from 10 to 20 acres intervening.

Sunday 9th. Spent the day at Araiwa River.

Mr Taylor performed divine service in the forenoon which was very impressive - dined on wild ducks procured by our guns.

Monday 10th. Started at 7 in the morning passing through a flat country richly wooded and possessing a rich alluvial soil, about 3 miles of our road was covered with high Beech or Tawai trees giving a majestic appearance to the scenery. The land they grow on is rather marshy - when out of this wood we came on the finest plain I have seen in the Country resembling Bathurst in New South Wales a river the Waitakaruru running down the centre. The soil is a dark sandy reddish loam, rich and fertile, occasional swamps, and entirely covered with a coarse grass called by the natives Potaka. Slept by the side of the river and made our bed with the young Manuka bushes which are highly scented.

Tuesday 11th. Our road continues for 20 miles across the plain which presents a delightful appearance, it would be a fine run for cattle as Mr Taylor informs me that it extends towards the Patea river south about 60 Miles and of a similar quality to what I have before described. Slept by the side of a small river named Tutangahakino. The country we had passed over was of a light sandy volcanic description we crossed two small rivers the Wangahu and the Waikato at the latter river we shot a beautiful small bird, with a dark breast, striped with yellow and grey feathers.

Wednesday 12th. Set out at 8 in the morning (a heavy and oppressive day) over volcanic remains of burnt cinders and lava which is the general character of this part of the country. We planted some Furze, Cranberry and other seeds which we had received from a lady at New Plymouth. Our natives complaining of fatigue and hunger we were obliged to give them the greatest part of our flour and rice and on meeting Paratene a Taupo chief living at Wanganui we got a few roasted potatoes. As he was returning to Wanganui we availed ourselves of the opportunity of communicating with our friends there. Arrived at Rito Iro about 5 in the evening - a beautiful small lake of Taupo and were very kindly received by the natives. We were much struck by the majestic appearance and kind and hospitable manner of the female, chief of this place. She reminded me of what they had been in former days before they had intercourse with civilised man. Mr Taylor distributed some books and other presents, and the natives attended service, and seemed to evince the most friendly disposition.

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I was much pleased with the pains Mr Taylor took to advance their social happiness and the manner in which he illustrated the various subjects and observed the impression they made.

Thursday Novr. 13th. This morning we had service about 6 in the morning Mr Taylor baptizing 4 natives and distributing books and medicine: I conversed with the natives and we then left and came on our journey through plain and forest to Herekiakia's place at Taupo lake when we visited the Hot Springs where nature is to be seen in active operation, exhibiting at one of them, a most wonderful phenomenon - the spring throwing up a fountain of boiling water which gushes forth about every 5 minutes from a point of 3 1/2 fathoms in depth, making a noise similar to that of the Gulph of Corerriehan near Jura, whilst a great trembling and rumbling sound is heard underneath as if the earth was going to open and swallow up the unwary spectator. It gave me the idea of its being the very Gulph of perdition itself, and awakened a long train of reflections on the subject.

Friday 14th. We came to the Rapa by the side of the lake the residence of Heuheu the chief of Taupo - on our approach the old chief had a salute fired in honour of his guests and received us kindly and enquired after several of his friends and acquaintances, native and European, talked some time about Hone Heke saying that he thought he would be a match or more for the Europeans. That Hongi his father or uncle who went to England to see King George advised him to be "friendly to the Pakehas both Tewera and Missionary but should it happen after his death that a flagstaff be erected in New Zealand, he was to be careful in preventing it on his own territories as the intention would be to possess the land and deprive his countrymen of their rights." That Taraia was not unlikely to join with Heke, that he himself was looking on quietly, but still he could not divest himself of a friendly feeling towards him, a man of the same color and country as himself. Having had some food I passed the greater part of the afternoon with him when he told me that there was still a very strong feeling on the part of the tribes of Taupo - Rotorua especially the Ngati-pikiau tribe who headed by the chiefs Rupe and Matanga had sent him a basket containing a quantity of ready made cartridges as a token they were disposed to assist him in attacking Ihupuku and try the strength of those who collected there last year as well as to be revenged for the death of some of their relatives who had been killed in the engagement at Patoka. These cartridges he fired off to signify he was not inclined to use them for the purpose intended. His desire being for peace, and through him had been kept to the present time, but he could not altogether suppress the warlike propensities of other tribes that they were at present watching the end of Heke's procrastinated war in the north and which he considered occasioned the present excitement throughout the Island. That he found a difficulty in keeping the tribes around him in proper subjection to himself. And to show his own disposition to both Europeans and natives he said he was sending his women and children to Wellington with mats and Kowai as presents for Te Rauparaha and Ngatata, and he did not wish to conceal from us that there was still a strong disposition on the part of the natives to have more fighting, that the mission natives were not well disposed and want to make themselves greater than they had any right, and that was one reason he did not join them. He had a great regard for all European missionaries and regretted the Bishop had not placed one at his place. That nothing gave him greater pleasure than having respectable Europeans to visit him.

Saturday 15th. We intended to have pursued our journey when it was considered more desirable as Heuheu wished it as well as Iwikau his brother who was unusually friendly both to myself and Mr Taylor (who in his previous visit he had insulted and who now told him if he came more frequently he should be inclined to become a missionary) to visit as many chiefs as we possibly could and to get as much information respecting them from Heuheu and his brother as we could obtain. It was evident from all appearances that great excitement existed amongst the tribes and that they were inclined to return in a great measure to their old habits and the innumerable feuds and grievances that have been dormant for years, the consequences of which would be alike serious to our Europeans settlements as well as themselves, and required the utmost exertion on the part of every one interested in the peace and tranquility of the Island. In pursuance of this plan we determined to visit Rotorua and on continuing the conversation with Iwikau he told us that he felt insulted by the conduct of the mission natives who were very proud of their religion but being treated so very kindly by Mr Taylor he could not forget his friendship nor the presents he had made him when at Wanganui. Iwikau also thanked me for my interference in seeing him paid for his and his brother's pigs (in the affair of the Trader on my former visit to Taupo) and had it not been settled he would ere now have tried the strength of the Europeans as Heke was doing, but it being arranged to his satisfaction

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and even his life saved by my interference as he found, he had become more friendly to all Pakehas. Heuheu informed us that the several tribes as far as Hauraki intended this season to visit Ihupuku and that those of Hauraki, Taraia Te Horeta were to join, and that it was only through his influence over them that they had so long refrained from an attack, he then gave me the several names of the Chiefs that intended to come from Rotorua and mentioned that the Ngatipikiao tribe had sent, owing to a curse from one of the missionaries at the Mission Pah Korana, a quantity of ammunition which they afterwards said was intended for Ihupuku. We then visited the Puias which seem to be fast diminishing took samples of the several specimens of calcined matter we found there. Saw a European called Newman who is entirely depending on Heuheu and his tribe for maintenance found him living with a native woman. Mr Taylor advised him to get married.

Sunday Novr. 16th. Mr Taylor performed divine service to a large and attentive congregation some of whom were baptised and several who formerly had received him very coolly were now most friendly and evinced a better feeling.

Monday 17th. Mr Taylor married Newman to the native woman that he had been living with 18 months. After breakfast Heuheu got a canoe ready and accompanied us across the lake to the next Pah north of the Rapa when I had a long conversation with him, endeavouring to point out to him the benefit to Taupo in having a European settlement at Wanganui and how much it would be to his benefit to behave well to them mentioning that that was the wish of Turoa on his death-bed strongly recommending peace to his relatives, reminding them he had been a man of war but that now he wished all that to die in the grave with him, they had come in the same canoe together and therefore ought to be friendly. I concluded by strongly urging him to peace, and Mr Taylor pointed out to him the evil consequences of war. The loss of life and misery occasioned by it. He replied that a grandson of Turoa's had been to him but had not told him a word of his wish for peace and if Turoa had expressed himself so to him when he asked the question twice of him when at Wanganui to be friendly to the Europeans - peace would long ere now have been established, as far as he was concerned. But as regarded the Pakehas at Wanganui they need not be alarmed he would say that they would be safe whatever happened he then went on to state the desire of several chiefs even as far as Hauraki to attack Ihupuku and requested me in the strongest terms to accompany Mr Taylor and visit all those of Roturoa mentioning them by name. He shewed us his houses at this Pah which were very handsomely built and neatly carved and fitted in the old native style also one he had built for Mr Chapman. We then bade him farewell and in doing so he begged us to visit him again and regretted he had not more means at his disposal just then to receive us more comfortably. We then parted from the friendly old chief and arrived at Waimarino where we found a very pleasing set of natives with an excellent man as teacher named Hakiha. The natives under his tuition were more advanced than at any place at Taupo we had been to after schooling them for an hour or so we came to Mututiri Maniapoto's place where we found the natives in a sad state of backwardness arising principally from the want of a Missionary amongst them. I could not but observe even in the short time we were there the good impression made by Mr Taylor's addresses to them. It is a great pity but that the duties of that gentleman at his own station were less arduous so as to allow him to visit this portion of the country oftener.

Tuesday 18th. Came to Oroua where one of Mr Taylor's attendants was taken very ill which detained us for a time at this Pah, the natives are rather better than at the last. They have built a large chapel and their anxiety for us to remain a day with them induced us to stop here - they killed a pig for us and our own natives shot some wild ducks. Mr Taylor baptised several natives. They told us that Heuheu was still desirous of going to Ihupuku, but not so much so as the young chief Herekiakia.

Wednesday 19th. Left Oroua at 6 in the morning passing along the banks of this river picking up several Kokopus, the largest fish found in this lake, about 7 or 8 inches in length and some a foot; they are driven on shore when there is a wind from the S.W. for a few days when the surf makes as great a noise as the sea on the beach. Some of the scenery round the Taupo lake is very pretty especially one spot at the northern end where they appear to have cultivations and houses. We fared sumptuously on wild ducks which we considered most delicious, they were larger and more delicate than any we had met with before, which may probably arise from their not visiting salt water. We met three Europeans from Maketu that had been wrecked. We offered them food but found them as well supplied as ourselves. We got on to a small lake called Rotokawau and pitched our tents for the night having had a fatiguing journey we indulged ourselves with the luxury of a glass of wine. The water of this small lake is unfit for general use owing to the quantity of sulphuric acid contained in it - we however managed it by putting in some carbonate of soda which is a great improvement. This lake abounds with ducks. The general

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character of the country after leaving Taupo lake and along under the Taioiwhan mountains is level but perfectly barren and useless with a few excellent bunches of Wiwi grass, growing over a pumice soil with occasional Puias presenting the appearance of an immense burial ground the whole road appearing equally barren and gloomy.

Thursday Novr. 20th. Came to a small settlement on the Waikato river Te Takapau where we found about 12 Church of England natives, our natives got food cooked for them; the Chief of this place has lately become a missionary but seems to know a great deal more of his old Pakeke customs than of his new religion, his name is Tekeri, from this place we travelled along some distance, dining on New Zealand fare potatoes and pork. Called at Hokaki where there are a few houses but found no natives, came to the Waikato river again, when one of my lads swam across and procured a canoe which we were glad to find to take us across, we encamped about 3 Miles beyond at a very snug spot with plenty of fresh water.

Friday Novr. 21st. Got to a small planting settlement about 5 miles from our last encampment (a sketch of which is drawn at the end) procured some potatoes for our natives; (Paewa is the name of the Kainga) from thence we came to another small plantation where there are several natives dined and proceeded on our journey through a barren sandy country with a good deal of undulation encamped where there is a beautiful road running through a small patch of timberland named Pakaraka.

Saturday. 22nd. Left our encampment at 6 in the morning when two natives met us and informed us that Archdeacon Brown had passed through to Taupo and Heretonga on Tuesday. The first little lake we came to is named Motutawa with a small Pikopo settlement at its banks and another on an Island of the same name in the middle of the lake opposite to the Ohika Pah. From thence we had a canoe to cross the lake to Tarawera where Mr Spencer an American in deacons orders is located. From Tarawera we crossed to Okarika and dined there, When we passed through a small patch of forest land and got in sight of the Ngai where Mr Chapman resides and arrived there about 4 P. M. I met the young man stationed at Maketu as assistant Sub-Protector who informed me of the arrival of Captain Grey late Governor of South Australia as Governor of these Islands. Mr Chapman who was endeavoring to cross the lake in front of his house for the purpose of holding a committee to investigate the conduct of some natives, being prevented by the wind being unfavorable joined us in the evening and pleased me much with his kind and frank manner. The country round here is far from what I expected, it is throughout barren and unfertile unfit for grazing or cultivation beyond the bare wants of the natives who seem to be short enough of provisions for themeselves. The lakes present rather a pleasing aspect but the neighbourhood is so cold as to prevent many vegetables from thriving that grow in luxuriance in other parts of the Island. English fruit trees however grow and Mr Chapman's garden is very well stocked with them The English gooseberry was in abundance and we partook of an excellent tart from them here. In my interview with the natives I was glad to find they had given up their desire for war and were industriously pursuing their agricultural operations. They had concluded peace with several tribes with whom they had contended for years about an Island on the East coast called Motu Iti and their old men had agreed to leave the land in peace for their children and successors. Hi kiairo being the principal leader of the tribes I wished in accordance with an understanding with Heuheu to see him before I returned.

Sunday 23rd. Attended church in the forenoon when Mr Taylor preached to the natives had English service at mid-day and in the afternoon Mr Chapman preached. The natives were particularly attentive to the several discourses.

Monday 24. At 6 in the morning went with Messrs Chapman and Taylor across Rotorua lake which is estimated to be 6 Miles broad. We landed at a small settlement where we found a few natives amongst them, some that I knew from Hauraki, we breakfasted and in walking round I saw several Fruit Trees well stocked. In passing through another settlement I observed a large chapel going to ruins in consequence of the natives being more scattered in their habitations than when it was built, when fear of the enemy kept them collected at their fortified places. We then arrived at Hikairo's place. Mr Chapman having to settle a question whether the teacher who had been concerned in some stolen goods from Kororareka but which had been returned should retain his office. With Mr Taylor's advice determined that the man should be suspended from his office for one month. After this affair was settled I conversed with Hikairo who possesses great influence over his tribe: he was glad to hear Heuheu's message and said that having become a missionary his desire for war had left him and that he hoped that peace would reign throughout the Island and all old grievances forgotten in their new religion to which he alone wished to adhere: if there were a few who still desired war in his neighbourhood they were not to be regarded as their influence was so small. They resided

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at Matatawa (? Matarawa) and he was desirous I should see them. In the evening we got back to Mr Chapman's.

Tuesday Novr. 25. Wet heavy morning, went into the natives school at Mr Chapman's which is very well conducted under the superintendence of a Miss Corney, the progress the children are making is highly satisfactory there are sometimes about 30 scholars girls and boys from 4 to 8 years of age. After dinner we walked out to the hot springs and picked up several specimens of wood that had become petrified, it was so heavy and rainy that we could not see any distance, the plains of Rotorua that I discerned were barren and valueless. Mr Chapman told me the subsoil was very rich but too deep to be available in ploughing. From this gentleman I had some interesting accounts of Hikairo the native chief, also a short history of the Ngatipikiao who about 300 in number still continued heathens.

Wednesday 26th. This morning visited all the Pahs in the neighbourhood of Mr Chapman's and had long conversations with the natives who were anxiously enquiring if the new Governor would be inclined for war or peace that they were afraid he would be desirous of the former if so it would be a serious thing and would arouse the jealousy of all the tribes in the Island who were only looking on to see what the result of Heke's war would be. I was sorry to find among them some men who had returned from assisting Heke and were giving very untrue versions of the different engagements and I saw they were striving to excite the better disposed against us. On my return from those Pahs I was delighted to meet the old chief of Maketu Pukuatua with whom I had a long conversation and found him a sensible well inclined chief. He told me he was the principal instrument in making peace with Tauranga respecting Motu Iti a place that had for years been in contention. That he wished to see the people of Taupo and the West coast conclude a peace and for all the natives to be of one mind and peace to reign throughout the whole length and breadth of the land - That about next harvest a large body would march to Ihupuku from Taupo for that purpose when they would go as far as Kapiti. With the assistance of a friendly disposition on his part and the same on my own we were about to part when he thought of writing a friendly letter through me to the natives of the West Coast, asking me what chiefs lived there as he would only write to a Chief, which having done, we parted and I returned to Mr Chapman's where dinner awaited us; after which Mr Chapman took us in his boat a few miles on our journey with a plentiful supply of provisions and after landing we walked about 5 Miles to Ohinemutu Pah where we remained the night. This Pah is very thickly populated and there are many very interesting children most of whom know their English alphabet and count from one to 100 with ease. They also know a few words of English. They reflect great credit on their resident missionary Mr Chapman who seems to be doing a great deal for the rising generation. After a long interview with the chief Horokai respecting his intentions I was glad to find he evinced a most friendly disposition, and willing to act in accordance with the peaceable intentions of the Pukuatua. I gave him a little present of tobacco telling him I hoped he would live in peace and quietness until I could again see him. I then visited Ngapapa a young chief next him in importance - who I found a sensible quiet man and who told me of the intentions of all the Rotorua chiefs visiting Ihupuku in harvest for the purpose of making peace. Having removed their fears as to the intentions of Government I left him and got a Ngatipaoa boy to guide me to a hot spring where I had the pleasure of bathing, a great luxury after the fatiguing journeys I had undergone. The most remarkable features in this place are the immense number of Hot Springs in the very centre of the Pah rendering it dangerous to walk about after dark. It appears to be a complete subterraneous boiler of volcanic steam. These springs are not unattended by danger to the inhabitants, sometimes breaking out in fresh places and scalding those who are near to death. They are of different temperatures, some sufficiently hot for cooking food whilst others make agreeable baths.

Thursday 27th. It rained very hard until about 1/2 past 10 A. M. when we struck our tents and left passing by some hot springs and better soil than we had yet seen in any part of Rotorua - rich and alluvial of a dark reddish colour. About 1/2 past 1 we got to Arakari a small Pah on the top of a very pretty hill commanding an extensive view of Rotorua lake, and giving a more favorable view of the whole country. At this settlement there are a few natives of the Ngatituara tribe. At the settlements generally there was a feeling of patrictism getting up in favour of Hone Heke, and a belief that he would be joined by all the Ngapuhis in his next engagement with the English - that he had recommended all the tribes on the sea coast to prevent any landing of Europeans - that Rauparaha was again to commence his wars particularly against the Pakehas. In our journey this day the only object we met with worthy of notice was a large range of hills called Horohoro they had a grand and romantic appearance - we ascended to near the summit of the mountain but it did not repay us for the trouble - the sun being about to set and the view not so extensive as we anticipated. We sowed a few seeds of Russian cranberry and Bilberry and then encamped on

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a lovely spot by a pretty spring and rested for the night - the River is named Pukaraka.

Friday Novr. 28th. Left Pukaraka at 8 in the morning and travelled through a portion of hill and dale but principally a flax country. Towards evening we came to Tokora a curious rock like the remains of a druidical building where the roads divide to Rohina and Taupo and Matamata, our guide was uncertain to our course and told us we should find no water further on we therefore carried some but found there was plenty up to where we encamped which we did about 6 P. M.

Saturday 29th. Started about 1/2 past 7 and got to Rohina about 4 P. M. We were detained some time by William losing his road in the bush entering Rohina where there are many pig tracks. We fortunately found a canoe to take us across the Waikato and the natives met with William and brought him back by 8 P. M. I rewarded them with a shirt and some tobacco.

Sunday Novr 30th. Had prayers in the forenoon and afternoon.

Monday December 1st. Mr Taylor left me to visit Mr Morgan intending joining me again on Wednesday at Taonui's. There was a difference at this Pah in the morning respecting a case of adultery after they had settled it I left and got to Ruahine settlement about 1/2 past 11. The country with the exception of a few wooded spots where the natives were cultivating is a barren stunted fern with several curious rocks scattered about shewing the awful state of the earth at some period in this part. The natives we had met with since we left Rotorua were principally the Ngati-Raukawa tribe and I can say but little of their hospitality. It rained very hard all day and by the time I got to the Periperi Ngawakas place I felt very unwell with a most painful toothache.

Tuesday 2nd. I spent all this day at Rangi-toto Ngawaka's place and was greatly pleased with the kind reception received from the chief Kgawaka and his tribe. He ordered two pigs to be killed for me one of which I reserved for Mr Taylor's natives when they arrived. There is a European named Deighton living here who appears to have been respectably educated. I was grieved to see a young man thus wasting the best part of his days. Had a long conversation with Ngawaka who appears quietly disposed especially to Europeans.

Wednesday 3rd. - About 2 o'clock Mr Taylor and his natives arrived from Mr Morgan's of Otowai about 23 Miles I was glad to see him safe back - found him much pleased with his visit. We killed our second pig and intended leaving but discovering the chief was absent and it would be uncourteous to leave without seeing him, we decided on spending the night there.

Thursday 4th. Left Te Periperi better known as Rangitoto about 8 A. M. and were followed by a great number of natives from the Pah who were regretting our departure. The chief's son accompanied us intending to go to New Plymouth and we parted from Te Heuheu's son who had come so far with us; I presented him with a blanket. On our way spent some time at Wauama Pa about 12 Miles from Ngawaka's. I could not make out whether the natives were Roman Catholics or Protestants not shewing any signs of having benefitted by either although I am inclined to think from what I have heard of Mr Morgan (in whose district they are) that he is zealous and indefatigable in his exertions. After leaving this place the road was very hilly to Taonui's where we pitched our tents about 3 P. M. Taonui talked of Heke and said if he came to Auckland and touched the Flagstaff there the Waikatos would very quickly put a stop to his proceedings. He also suspected from what he had heard that Tairo wished to be an actor as well as Heke so that he might not have all the merit of fighting with the English to himself; he also thought if Turoa was alive he would give his assistance Rauparaha assented to them making their first attack on Wellington and the southern settlements. That Heuheu and himself had received this intelligence but he would not vouch for the truth of it, and if such was Taiara's (? Taraia) intention it disagreed with both his and Heuheu's desire to protect all Europeans in the Island, istead of attempting to affect its peace and tranquility. I told him that the Europeans were stronger than those who had never visited England could estimate that their best policy was to live in peace with us and that was our desire towards them and giving them an account of the friendly disposition of the interior tribes and relating Turoa's death we left him for the night.

Friday 5th. Left Paripari at 20 m. past 8 and by a pretty little stream Mr Taylor baptised a fine young boy son of Lewis Hetee his mother having met us on her way home, and he wishing to have his children educated as Protestants availed himself of the opportunity. About 3 we arrived at Whakatumutumu and were kindly welcomed by Mr and Mrs Miller (who are stationed there) as well as by their young smiling urchins - had tea and stayed a few hours - heard that a favorable improvement had taken place in the natives since my last visit - Talked some time with Paraone the Chief, and all the natives, came on to the side of a small plantation by the side of the Mokau, where we quietly squatted for the night.

Saturday 6th. At 7 A. M. we left our encampment and travelled through a fine rich fertile country along the banks of the Mokau - abundantly stocked with pigs. The soil is a dark loam and I believe very productive. Our route lay in a valley between two ranges of hills on each side of the river, and is from one to three miles broad. The first Huts we came to are at Poporo where we found no natives - At the next some

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English (ATL)

5 Miles further on there were a few who provided food for our natives and by 1/2 past one we got to Ruakaka where we waded the Mokau and about 4 arrived at Mutukamuma Mr Riemen-schneider's station. The chief Okari came there to see us and told us the natives of Waitara had fled from their lands in consequence of one of the Ngatiawa tribe oursing his father (Okari's) who had not yet received intelligence of it nor did he know how he would receive it. But he supposed he would make peace if they would pay for the insult, which was aggravated by their having been returned prisoners of war. The German mission at this place consists of one ordained priest and a layman sent out as a farmer to superintend cultivation. The chief Okari has given them about 10 acres of land, in a good situation having the river between them and the Pah where there is another European named Jones living who has a neat garden with quantities of vegetables growing and some Wheat. The most untidy part of his establishment is his house which is formed of a few round sticks only and Nikau covering such as the natives use for cooking under. They have already adopted some of his modes of culture and they are all industriously pursuing their work. There are about 80 or 100 at this settlement, which is rather a pretty one and in a part of the country scarcely ever visited by New Zealand travellers. It fully confirms or rather strengthens an impression I had previously formed that it would suit well for an industrious German peasantry used to the growth of the vine which would from the nature of the soil be very prolific, and as there are already two missionaries from that country stationed here they will act it is probable as Pioneers to the further establishment of their countrymen on the banks of the Mokau.

Sunday December 7th. Crossed the river and with Messrs Riemenschneider and Whiteman attended native service. Mr Taylor preached and gave us one of the best native sermons, and as appropriate to the place and people as could well be given and that I have as yet heard him preach.

Monday December 8th. At 7 o'clock in the morning we commenced our descent of the river Mokau accompanied by the chief's wife and a guide to get us safe over the rapids. The land continued to have a level and fertile appearance. The river winds very much but is considerably deeper and easier to pull down than any river of the same size I have yet seen. After passing the rapids it is perfectly smooth and with constant pulling we managed to get to the Mahoi (? Mahoe) Mr Schnackenberg's station at 7 P. M. and found all at the Mokau station quiet and considerable improvements made.

Tuesday. This morning Waitara the chief of Mokau had a long conversation with me respecting the curse mentioned above and said he was sorry that Taonui had not known of it when we were at his place as we might have arranged the affair. He then talked about a vessel which he has partly purchased telling me the remaining portion of the price (80 pigs) was ready. Having informed him of the friendly disposition of the tribes I had visited he appeared pleased and remarked that European influence was rapidly destroying their war-like habits. About 10 o'clock we came to Kahawa Hihaka's place at Tongaporutu. We had further talk on various subjects and proceeded on our journey but were detained by the tide for several hours nor could we proceed until about 11 at night when we walked until 1/2 past 2 when we got to Waikamumu and pitched our tents.

Wednesday 10th. At 7 in the morning we left Waikamumu and got to a small station newly occupied by a Waikato chief in right of his wife who belonged to the Ngatitama tribe. Having settled some matters for this chief when at Taranaki he received us very kindly and gave me much information on various subjects particularly as to the Waikatos who he considered friendly. After breakfasting at his place and waiting one or two hours for the tide we left - promising him some seeds for his garden and cuttings of fruit trees. We crossed the Mimi and Urenui rivers easily at ebb tide and came to Onaero where there is very excellent land suited for cultivation - from thence to the Taniwha where we met about 10 natives who had landed from their canoes with a quantity of shark and other fish who offered to cook some for us, but being anxious to push on, having sent two men before us to get provisions prepared for our arrival. About 6 P. M. we arrived at the Waitara where the natives got fish and potatoes in abundance, and as many fish as they could carry home for their own use. About 1/2 past six we started for New Plymouth and got in by ten at night where we found all well, and thus concluded a fatiguing journey of nearly 700 Miles the result of which has I hope been most satisfactory.

Part of:
Extracts from a journal kept during a visit to the tribes of the interior of the northern island of New Zealand, Reference Number fMS-140 (2 digitised items)
Series 5 Diaries and notebooks, Reference Number Series 5 Diaries and notebooks (100 digitised items)
McLean Papers, Reference Number MS-Group-1551 (30238 digitised items)

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